You may have noticed that I discuss qualitative/philosophical terms from time to time in my posts. I see no real need to provide a complexity glossary (as I am preaching to the choir)….This is by no means exhaustive….
Phenomenology- lived experience- (reference: Denzin (2008) and all of Crotty)
Objective reality- against tenets of qualitative inquiry- observer as primary instrument leaves behind objective reality (references: Crotty, 1994)-
Ontology- what is knowledge? – idealism V. realism- shift from objective to objective- post-positivist to subjective
Epistemology- theories of knowledge- what is knowable?
Axiology- values, what is right or wrong?
Paradigm- basic assumption of what can be known; theoretical framework of a phenomenon
Positivism- goal to predict and assume rational action- an atom is rational, human action is not! (reference: Chapell et al, 2006-this article sanitizes the experience of bullying into unfeeling data)
Post-positivist- post-objective- there is hope with articles such as Blackbeard & Lindegger (2007) – you can find agency even when dealing with an epistemology of finding a truth
Neopositist-e.g. Patti Lather –not 100% truth- but stats only explores rejecting null not proving null with a certain alpha level of certainty- spin makes science appear certain
(Reference of note: Lather & Moss, 2005)
Objectivism- culture irrelevant- there must be some social meaning (reference: Belensky et al, 1986)
Constructionism- based on interaction-this became most clear when methods discussed (you must know you!) (references: any of Dillard)
Grounded theory- Glaser and Strauss- allows generation of theory in context- “deconstructs”- both a method and theory- what emerges from “data” is theory- backwards from positivist
(reference: Glaser & Strauss, 1967).
Theoretical framework- conceptual categories in relationship- what is mine?
Validity- in grounded theory, fit to range of experiences (analogous to Chi square goodness of fit-how well model fits empirical data)-this will be different for every experience (Lather, 1986).
Reflexivity- “makes the strange familiar”- reflection necessary- must not be psychotherapy (autoethnography) (Glesne and Perkin, 1988)
Vulnerable observer- anthropology that breaks your heart- guess can’t be distant observer. What about the emotional toll on the researcher? (Errante, 2003)
Agency- belief in ability to change situation; can impact world through action
Feminisms- impact of gender on aspects of power; series of binaries that have to be deconstructed (This still confuses me-the different waves…) (reference: Crotty!!!!)- This can be closely linked to post-colonial (reference: Collins, 2006; Larrabee, 2006)
“othering”- different so assign as allies or enemy (Levinas (1969) says that we can truly never know the
other; an argument against Levinas’ call to see the other as radically strange is that we have finite social resources that be prematurely exhausted by doing this)
Poststructuralism- through corpus of words, words are power- Foucault
Emergent design- gives flexibility of scheduling of data collection as qualitative is back loaded enterprise
Triangulation- way to verify or add depth
Construct validity- reflexive subjectivity
Face validity- go back to informants to check- e.g. Lather and Smithers cross checking Troubling the Angels with the participants before going to press
Catalytic validity- Lather- to what degree has it been a catalyst for change- how would this be measured and assessed- For Lather and Smithers- the HIV positive women found agency in their retelling
Chapell, M. S., Hasselman, S. L., Kitchin, T., Lomon, S. N., MacIVer, K. W., & Sarullo, P. L. (2006). Bullying in Elementary School, High School and College. Adolescence, 41(164), 633-648.
Comaroff, J., & Comaroff, J. (1992). Ethnography and the Historical Imagination. Boulder: Westview Press.
Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New York: Aldine de Guyter.
Dillard, C. (2000). The substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen: examining an endarkened feminist epistemology in educational research and leadership. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 13(6), 661-681.
O’Farrell., C. (2005). Michel Foucault, London: SAGE.
Levinas, E. (1969).Totality and Infinity, translated by A. Lingis. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1969.
Pegues, H. (2007). Of Paradigm Wars: Constructivism, Objectivism, and Postmodern Stratagem. Educational Forum, 71(4), 316-330.
Belenky, M. F. et al. (1986). To the other side of silence. In Women’s ways of knowing (pp. 3-20). New: Basic Books.
Glesne, C. (1999). Becoming Qualitative Researchers. White Plains: Jossey-Bass.
Sipe, L., & Constable, S. (1996). A Chart of Four Contemporary Research Paradigms: Metaphors for the Modes of Inquiry. Taboo: The Journal of Culture and Education, 1(Spring), 153-163.
Errante, A. (2003). White Skin, Many Masks: Colonial Schooling, Race and National Consciousness among White Settler Children, 1934-1974. International Journal of African Historical Studies, 36(1), 7-33.
Peshkin, A. (1988). In Search of Subjectivity–One’s Own. Educational Researcher, 17(7), 17.
Larrabee, M. J. (2006). “I Know What a Slave Knows”: Mary Prince’s Epistemology of Resistance. Women’s Studies, 35(5), 453-473.
Crotty, M. (1998). The Foundations of Social Research. London/Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Denzin, Norman K.(2008)’The new paradigm dialogs and qualitative inquiry’, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 21:4,315 — 325 .
Lather, P., & Smithers, C. (1997). Troubling the Angels” Women Living With HIV/AIDS. Boulder, CO: Westview/Harper Collins.
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds.). (2003). The landscape of qualitative research : theories and issues (2nd ed ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage.*
Schwandt, T. A. (1997). Qualitative inquiry: A dictionary of terms. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Collins, J. (2006). Framing and Expropriating Indigenous Identities. International Journal of the Humanities, 3(6), 59-66.
Blackbeard, D., & Lindegger, G. (2007). ‘Building a wall around themselves’: Exploring adolescent masculinity and abjection with photo-biographical research. South African Journal of Psychology, 37(1), 25-46.